Hello, Humour me. I was watching a program on tv tonight that featured the use of a drug that has traditionally been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (an immune modulator). The drug in question; Enbrel, is now being applied to the treatment of stroke in the states, and trials are commencing in Australia next year. Researchers interviewed in the program stated that they felt Enbrel is an exciting drug with potential for more widespread use in neurodegenerative conditions. Whilst tinnitus wasn't specifically mentioned, I cant help but wonder if addressing brain inflammation by reducing TNF alpha (as in the case of Enbrel) would be helpful? Are there any threads on this forum on this topic? Has there ever been a link made between raised TNF and tinnitus? Pardon my ignorance. Dr google revealed a bunch of info on brain inflammation. I found some possible hypotheses for the generation of brain inflammation .. . an increase in TNF alpha causes an increase in AMPAR (a neuronal receptor for glutamate) which leads to an increase in glutamic receptors, causing an increased sensitivity in surrounding tissue, and hence increased neuronal excitability. . TNF alpha mediated inflammation leads to changes in the properties of helper brain cells (astrocytes) which regulate glutamic acid, leading to a loss of glutamic acid regulation, causing an oversensitisation of neurons. . Other theories include: the suppression of the production of new hippocampus neurons (neurogenesis), and decrease in the microglial cell's normal ability to repair and maintain neuronal synapses. So, where am going with all of this? 1. could immune modulators like Enbrel/other have a role to play in treating tinnitus assuming brain inflammation is involved? 2. what are the ways in which TNF alpha can be reduced? 3. Can changes in neurons (ie increased sensitivity to neurotransmitters) be reversed? Can synapses be repaired? any thoughts?